|Federal Republic of Germany
|Motto: Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit(German)
Unity and Justice and Freedom</small>
- Main article: Foreign relations of Germany
Germany has a network of 229 diplomatic missions abroad and maintains relations with more than 190 countries. As of 2011[update] it is the largest contributor to the budget of the European Union (providing 20%) and the third largest contributor to the UN (providing 8%). Germany is a member of NATO, the Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the G8, the G20, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). It has played a leading role in the European Union since its inception and has maintained a strong alliance with France since the end of World War II. Germany seeks to advance the creation of a more unified European political, defence, and security apparatus.
The development policy of the Federal Republic of Germany is an independent area of German foreign policy. It is formulated by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) and carried out by the implementing organisations. The German government sees development policy as a joint responsibility of the international community. It is the world's third biggest aid donor after the United States and France.
During the Cold War, Germany's partition by the Iron Curtain made it a symbol of East-West tensions and a political battleground in Europe. However, Willy Brandt's Ostpolitik was a key factor in the détente of the 1970s. In 1999, Chancellor Gerhard Schröder's government defined a new basis for German foreign policy by taking part in the NATO decisions surrounding the Kosovo War and by sending German troops into combat for the first time since World War II. The governments of Germany and the United States are close political allies. The 1948 Marshall Plan and strong cultural ties have crafted a strong bond between the two countries, although Schröder's vocal opposition to the Iraq War suggested the end of Atlanticism and a relative cooling of German-American relations. The two countries are also economically interdependent: 8.8% of German exports are U.S.-bound and 6.6% of German imports originate from the U.S.
- Main article: Bundeswehr
Germany's military, the Bundeswehr, is organized into Heer (Army), Marine (Navy), Luftwaffe (Air Force), Bundeswehr Joint Medical Service and Streitkräftebasis (Joint Support Service) branches. As of 2011[update], military spending was an estimated 1.3% of the country's GDP, which is low in a ranking of all countries; in absolute terms, German military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world. In peacetime, the Bundeswehr is commanded by the Minister of Defence. If Germany went to war, which according to the constitution is allowed only for defensive purposes, the Chancellor would become commander-in-chief of the Bundeswehr.
As of March 2012[update] the Bundeswehr employs 183,000 professional soldiers and 17,000 volunteers. The German government plans to reduce the number of soldiers to 170,000 professionals and up to 15,000 short-term volunteers (voluntary military service). Reservists are available to the Armed Forces and participate in defence exercises and deployments abroad. As of April 2011[update], the German military had about 6,900 troops stationed in foreign countries as part of international peacekeeping forces, including about 4,900 Bundeswehr troops in the NATO-led ISAF force in Afghanistan and Uzbekistan, 1,150 German soldiers in Kosovo, and 300 troops with UNIFIL in Lebanon.
Until 2011, military service was compulsory for men at age 18, and conscripts served six-month tours of duty; conscientious objectors could instead opt for an equal length of Zivildienst (civilian service), or a six-year commitment to (voluntary) emergency services like a fire department or the Red Cross. On 1 July 2011 conscription was officially suspended and replaced with a voluntary service. Since 2001 women may serve in all functions of service without restriction, but they are not subject to conscription. There are presently some 17,500 women on active duty and a number of female reservists.
- Main article: Economy of Germany
Germany has a social market economy with a highly skilled labour force, a large capital stock, a low level of corruption, and a high level of innovation. It has the largest and most powerful national economy in Europe, the fourth largest by nominal GDP in the world, the fifth largest by PPP, and was the biggest net contributor to the EU budget in 2011. The service sector contributes approximately 71% of the total GDP, industry 28%, and agriculture 1%. The official average national unemployment rate in May 2012 was 6.7%. However, the official average national unemployment rate also includes people with a part-time job that are looking for a full-time job. The unofficial average national unemployment rate in 2011 was 5.7%.
Germany is an advocate of closer European economic and political integration. Its commercial policies are increasingly determined by agreements among European Union (EU) members and by EU legislation. Germany introduced the common European currency, the euro, on 1 January 2002. Its monetary policy is set by the European Central Bank. Two decades after German reunification, standards of living and per capita incomes remain significantly higher in the states of the former West Germany than in the former East. The modernisation and integration of the eastern German economy is a long-term process scheduled to last until the year 2019, with annual transfers from west to east amounting to roughly $80 billion. In January 2009 the German government approved a €50 billion economic stimulus plan to protect several sectors from a downturn and a subsequent rise in unemployment rates.
Of the world's 500 largest stock-market-listed companies measured by revenue in 2010, the Fortune Global 500, 37 are headquartered in Germany. 30 Germany-based companies are included in the DAX, the German stock market index. Well-known global brands are Mercedes-Benz, BMW, SAP, Siemens, Volkswagen, Adidas, Audi, Allianz, Porsche, Bayer, Bosch, and Nivea. Germany is recognised for its specialised small and medium enterprises. Around 1,000 of these companies are global market leaders in their segment and are labelled hidden champions.
The list includes the largest companies by turnover in 2009. Unranked are the largest bank and the largest insurance company in 2007:
|6||Deutsche Post AG||Bonn||63,512||1,389||475,100|
|7||Deutsche Telekom AG||Bonn||62,516||569||241,426|
- Main article: Transport in Germany
With its central position in Europe, Germany is a transport hub. This is reflected in its dense and modern transport networks. The motorway (Autobahn) network ranks as the third largest worldwide in length and is known for its lack of a general speed limit. Germany has established a polycentric network of high-speed trains. The InterCityExpress or ICE network of the Deutsche Bahn serves major German cities as well as destinations in neighbouring countries with speeds up to 300 kph (186 mph). The largest German airports are Frankfurt Airport and Munich Airport, both hubs of Lufthansa, while Air Berlin has hubs at Berlin Tegel and Düsseldorf. Other major airports include Berlin Schönefeld, Hamburg, Cologne/Bonn and Leipzig/Halle. Both airports in Berlin will be consolidated at a site adjacent to Berlin Schönefeld, which will become Berlin Brandenburg Airport in 2013.
As of 2008[update], Germany was the world's sixth largest consumer of energy, and 60% of its primary energy was imported. Government policy promotes energy conservation and renewable energy. Energy efficiency has been improving since the early 1970s; the government aims to meet the country's electricity demands using 40% renewable sources by 2020 and 100% by 2050. In 2010, energy sources were: oil (33.7%); coal, including lignite (22.9%); natural gas (21.8%); nuclear (10.8%); hydro-electric and wind power (1.5%); and other renewable sources (7.9%). In 2000, the government and the nuclear power industry agreed to phase out all nuclear power plants by 2021. Germany is committed to the Kyoto protocol and several other treaties promoting biodiversity, low emission standards, recycling, and the use of renewable energy, and supports sustainable development at a global level. The German government has initiated wide-ranging emission reduction activities and the country's overall emissions are falling. Nevertheless the country's greenhouse gas emissions were the highest in the EU as of 2010[update].
Science and technologyEdit
- Main article: Science and technology in Germany
Germany's achievements in the sciences have been significant, and research and development efforts form an integral part of the economy. The Nobel Prize has been awarded to 103 German laureates. For most of the 20th century, German laureates had more awards than those of any other nation, especially in the sciences (physics, chemistry, and physiology or medicine).
The work of Albert Einstein and Max Planck was crucial to the foundation of modern physics, which Werner Heisenberg and Max Born developed further. They were preceded by such key physicists as Hermann von Helmholtz, Joseph von Fraunhofer and Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit, among others. Wilhelm Röntgen discovered X-rays and was the first winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901. Otto Hahn was a pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry and discovered nuclear fission,  while Ferdinand Cohn and Robert Koch were founders of microbiology. Numerous mathematicians were born in Germany, including Carl Friedrich Gauss, David Hilbert, Bernhard Riemann, Gottfried Leibniz, Karl Weierstrass, Hermann Weyl and Felix Klein. Research institutions in Germany include the Max Planck Society, the Helmholtz Association and the Fraunhofer Society. The Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize is granted to ten scientists and academics every year. With a maximum of €2.5 million per award it is one of highest endowed research prizes in the world.
Germany has been the home of many famous inventors and engineers, such as Johannes Gutenberg, credited with the invention of movable type printing in Europe; Hans Geiger, the creator of the Geiger counter; and Konrad Zuse, who built the first fully automatic digital computer. German inventors, engineers and industrialists such as Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin, Otto Lilienthal, Gottlieb Daimler, Rudolf Diesel, Hugo Junkers and Karl Benz helped shape modern automotive and air transportation technology. Aerospace engineer Wernher von Braun developed the first space rocket and later on was a prominent member of NASA and developed the Saturn V Moon rocket, which paved the way for the success of the US Apollo program. Heinrich Rudolf Hertz's work in the domain of electromagnetic radiation was pivotal to the development of modern telecommunication.
Germany is one of the leading countries in developing and using green technologies. Companies specializing in green technology have an estimated turnover of €200 billion. Key sectors of Germany's green technology industry are power generation, sustainable mobility, material efficiency, energy efficiency, waste management and recycling, and sustainable water management.
- Main article: Demographics of Germany
With its estimated population of 81.8 million in January 2010, Germany is the most populous country in the European Union and ranks as the 16th most populous country in the world. Its population density stands at 229.4 inhabitants per square kilometre. The overall life expectancy in Germany at birth is 80.19 years (77.93 years for males and 82.58 years for females). The fertility rate of 1.41 children born per woman (2011 estimates), or 8.33 births per 1000 inhabitants, is one of the lowest in the world. Since the 1970s, Germany's death rate has continuously exceeded its birth rate. The Federal Statistical Office of Germany forecast that the population will shrink to between 65 and 70 million by 2060 (depending on the level of net migration).
Germans by nationality make up 91% of the population of Germany. As of 2010[update], about seven million foreign citizens were registered in Germany, and 20% of the country's residents, or more than 16 million people, were of foreign or partially foreign descent (including persons descending or partially descending from ethnic German repatriates), 96% of whom lived in the former West Germany or Berlin.
In 2010, 2.3 million families with children under 18 years were living in Germany, in which at least one parent had foreign roots. They represented 29% of the total of 8.1 million families with minor children. Compared with 2005 – the year when the microcensus started to collect detailed information on the population with a migrant background – the proportion of migrant families has risen by 2 percentage points.
Most of the families with a migrant background live in the western part of Germany. In 2010, the proportion of migrant families in all families was 32% in the pre-unification territory of the Federal Republic. This figure was more than double that in the new Länder (including Berlin) where it stood at 15%.
Families with a migrant background more often have three or more minor children in the household than families without a migrant background. In 2010, about 15% of the families with a migrant background contained three or more minor children, as compared with just 9% of the families without a migrant background.
The United Nations Population Fund lists Germany as host to the third-highest number of international migrants worldwide, about 5% or 10 million of all 191 million migrants. As a consequence of restrictions to Germany's formerly rather unrestricted laws on asylum and immigration, the number of immigrants seeking asylum or claiming German ethnicity (mostly from the former Soviet Union) has been declining steadily since 2000. In 2009, 20% of the population had immigrant roots, the highest since 1945. As of 2008[update], the largest national group was from Turkey (2.5 million), followed by Italy (776,000) and Poland (687,000). About 3 million "Aussiedler"—ethnic Germans, mainly from the former eastern bloc—have resettled in Germany since 1987. Most ethnic minorities (especially those of non-European origin) reside in large urban areas like Berlin, Hamburg, Frankfurt Rhine-Main, Rhine-Ruhr, Rhine-Neckar and Munich. The percentage of non-Germans and immigrants is quite low in rural areas and small towns, especially in the former East German states of Brandenburg, Saxony and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
Ethnic makeup as of 2010:
|Ethnic Group||% of Germany's population||population|
|former Soviet Union (primarily Russian Germans, Russians and Jews)||1.7||1,400,000|
|European Other (most notably Southern Europeans, Western Europeans and former Yugoslavians)||3.6||3,000,000|
|others (primarily Arabs and Iranians)||1.2||1,000,000|
|Asian (especially Vietnamese and Thai people)||2.0||1,634,000|
|Afro-German or Black African||1.0||817,150|
|Mixed or unspecified background||2.0||1,634,000|
|Other groups (primarily the Americas)||1.8||1,470,000|
Germany has a number of large cities. The largest conurbation is the Rhine-Ruhr region (11.7 million as of 2008[update]), including Düsseldorf (the capital of North Rhine-Westphalia), Cologne, Bonn, Dortmund, Essen, Duisburg, and Bochum.
- Main article: Religion in Germany
Christianity is the largest religion in Germany, with around 51.5 million adherents (62.8%) in 2008. Relative to the whole population, 30.0% of Germans are Catholics, 29.9% are Protestants belonging to the Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD), and the remaining Christians belong to smaller denominations each with less than 0.5% of the German population. Protestantism is concentrated in the north and east and Roman Catholicism is concentrated in the south and west; 1.6% of the country's overall population declare themselves Orthodox Christians.
The second largest religion is Islam with an estimated 3.8 to 4.3 million adherents (4.6% to 5.2%), followed by Buddhism with 250,000 and Judaism with around 200,000 adherents (0.3%); Hinduism has some 90,000 adherents (0.1%). All other religious communities in Germany have fewer than 50,000 adherents. Of the roughly 4 million Muslims, most are Sunnis and Alevites from Turkey, but there are a small number of Shi'ites and other denominations. German Muslims, a large portion of whom are of Turkish origin, lack full official state recognition of their religious community. Germany has Europe's third largest Jewish population (after France and the United Kingdom). Approximately 50% of the Buddhists in Germany are Asian immigrants.
Germans with no stated religious adherence make up 34.1% of the population and are concentrated in the former East Germany and major metropolitan areas. German reunification in 1990 greatly increased the country's non-religious population, a legacy of the state atheism of the previously Soviet-controlled East. Christian church membership has decreased in recent decades, particularly among Protestants.
- Main article: Languages of Germany
German is the official and predominant spoken language in Germany. It is one of 23 official languages in the European Union, and one of the three working languages of the European Commission. Recognised native minority languages in Germany are Danish, Low German, Sorbian, Romany, and Frisian; they are officially protected by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. The most used immigrant languages are Turkish, Kurdish, Polish, the Balkan languages, and Russian; 67% of German citizens claim to be able to communicate in at least one foreign language and 27% in at least two languages other than their own.
Standard German is a West Germanic language and is closely related to and classified alongside English, Low German, Dutch, and the Frisian languages. To a lesser extent, it is also related to the East (extinct) and North Germanic languages. Most German vocabulary is derived from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. Significant minorities of words are derived from Latin and Greek, with a smaller amount from French and most recently English (known as Denglisch). German is written using the Latin alphabet. German dialects, traditional local varieties traced back to the Germanic tribes, are distinguished from varieties of standard German by their lexicon, phonology, and syntax.
- Main article: Education in Germany
Over 99% of Germans age 15 and above are estimated to be able to read and write. However, a growing number of inhabitants are functionally illiterate. Responsibility for educational oversight in Germany lies primarily with the individual federated states. Since the 1960s, a reform movement attempted to unify secondary education in a Gesamtschule (comprehensive school); several West German states later simplified their school system to two or three tiers. A system of apprenticeship called Duale Ausbildung ("dual education") allows pupils in vocational training to learn in a company as well as in a state-run vocational school.
Optional kindergarten education is provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory for at least nine years. Primary education usually lasts for four years and public schools are not stratified at this stage. In contrast, secondary education includes three traditional types of schools focused on different levels of academic ability: the Gymnasium enrols the most gifted children and prepares students for university studies; the Realschule for intermediate students lasts six years; the Hauptschule prepares pupils for vocational education.
The general entrance requirement for university is Abitur, a qualification normally based on continuous assessment during the last few years at school and final examinations; however there are a number of exceptions, and precise requirements vary, depending on the state, the university and the subject. Germany's universities are recognised internationally; in the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) for 2008, six of the top 100 universities in the world are in Germany, and 18 of the top 200. Nearly all German universities are public institutions, charging tuition fees of €50–500 per semester for each student.
- Main article: Health in Germany
Germany has the world's oldest universal health care system, dating back to Bismarck's social legislation in 1883. Currently the population is covered by a fairly comprehensive health insurance plan provided by statute. Certain groups of people (lifetime officials, self-employed persons, employees with high income) can opt out of the plan and switch to a private insurance contract. Previously, these groups could also choose to do without insurance, but this option was dropped in 2009. According to the World Health Organization, Germany's health care system was 77% government-funded and 23% privately funded as of 2005[update]. In 2005, Germany spent 11% of its GDP on health care. Germany ranked 20th in the world in life expectancy with 77 years for men and 82 years for women, and it had a very low infant mortality rate (4 per 1,000 live births).
As of 2010[update], the principal cause of death was cardiovascular disease, at 41%, followed by malignant tumours, at 26%. As of 2008[update], about 82,000 Germans had been infected with HIV/AIDS and 26,000 had died from the disease (cumulatively, since 1982). According to a 2005 survey, 27% of German adults are smokers.
- Main article: Culture of Germany
From its roots, culture in German states has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular. Historically Germany has been called Das Land der Dichter und Denker ("the land of poets and thinkers"), because of the major role its famous writers and philosophers have played in the development of Western thought and culture.
The federated states are in charge of the cultural institutions. There are 240 subsidised theatres, hundreds of symphonic orchestras, thousands of museums and over 25,000 libraries spread in Germany. These cultural opportunities are enjoyed by many: there are over 91 million German museum visits every year; annually, 20 million go to theatres and operas; 3.6 million per year listen to the symphonic orchestras. As of 2012 the UNESCO inscribed 37 properties in Germany on the World Heritage List.
Germany has established a high level of gender equality, promotes disability rights, and is legally and socially tolerant towards homosexuals. Gays and lesbians can legally adopt their partner's biological children, and civil unions have been permitted since 2001. Germany has also changed its attitude towards immigrants; since the mid-1990s, the government and the majority of Germans have begun to acknowledge that controlled immigration should be allowed based on qualification standards. Germany has been named the world's second most valued nation among 50 countries in 2010. A global opinion poll for the BBC revealed that Germany is recognised for having the most positive influence in the world in 2011.
- Main article: German art
Toccata und Fuge
Symphonie 5 c-moll
Numerous German painters have enjoyed international prestige through their work in diverse artistic styles. Hans Holbein the Younger, Matthias Grünewald, and Albrecht Dürer were important artists of the Renaissance, Caspar David Friedrich of Romanticism, and Max Ernst of Surrealism. Architectural contributions from Germany include the Carolingian and Ottonian styles, which were precursors of Romanesque. The region later became the site of Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque art. Germany was particularly important in the early modern movement, especially through the Bauhaus movement founded by Walter Gropius. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe became one of the world's most renowned architects in the second half of the 20th century. He conceived of the glass façade skyscraper.
German music includes works by some of the world's most well-known classical music composers, including Ludwig van Beethoven, Johann Sebastian Bach, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Johannes Brahms, Richard Wagner and Richard Strauss. Germany is the largest music market in Europe, and third largest in the world.
Literature and philosophyEdit
- Main article: German literature
German literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages and the works of writers such as Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach. Well-known German authors include Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Schiller, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing and Theodor Fontane. The collections of folk tales published by the Brothers Grimm popularised German folklore on an international level. Influential authors of the 20th century include Gerhart Hauptmann, Thomas Mann, Hermann Hesse, Heinrich Böll and Günter Grass. German-speaking book publishers produce some 700 million books every year, with about 80,000 titles, nearly 60,000 of them new. Germany comes third in quantity of books published, after the English-speaking book market and the People's Republic of China. The Frankfurt Book Fair is the most important in the world for international deals and trading, with a tradition spanning over 500 years.
German philosophy is historically significant. Gottfried Leibniz's contributions to rationalism; the establishment of classical German idealism by Immanuel Kant, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling; Arthur Schopenhauer's composition of metaphysical pessimism; the formulation of communist theory by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels; Friedrich Nietzsche's development of perspectivism; Gottlob Frege's contributions to the dawn of analytic philosophy; Martin Heidegger's works on Being; and the development of the Frankfurt school by Max Horkheimer, Theodor Adorno, Herbert Marcuse and Jürgen Habermas have been particularly influential. In the 21st century Germany has contributed to the development of contemporary analytic philosophy in continental Europe, along with France, Austria, Switzerland and the Scandinavian countries.
German cinema dates back to the earliest years of the medium with the work of Max Skladanowsky, which was particularly influential with German expressionists such as Robert Wiene and Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau. Director Fritz Lang's Metropolis (1927) is referred to as the first modern science-fiction film. In 1930 the Austrian-American Josef von Sternberg directed The Blue Angel, the first major German sound film. During the 1970s and 1980s, New German Cinema directors such as Volker Schlöndorff, Werner Herzog, Wim Wenders, and Rainer Werner Fassbinder put West German cinema on the international stage. The annual European Film Awards ceremony is held every other year in Berlin, home of the European Film Academy (EFA); the Berlin Film Festival, held annually since 1951, is one of the world's foremost film festivals.
More recently, films such as Good Bye, Lenin! (2003), Gegen die Wand (Head-On) (2004), Der Untergang (Downfall) (2004), and The Baader Meinhof Complex (2008) have had international success. The Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film went to the German production Die Blechtrommel (The Tin Drum) in 1979, to Nowhere in Africa in 2002, and to Das Leben der Anderen (The Lives of Others) in 2007. Germany's television market is the largest in Europe, with some 34 million TV households. Around 90% of German households have cable or satellite TV, with a variety of free-to-view public and commercial channels.
- Main article: German cuisine
German cuisine varies from region to region. The southern regions of Bavaria and Swabia, for instance, share a culinary culture with Switzerland and Austria. In all regions, meat is often eaten in sausage form. Organic food has gained a market share of ca. 2%, and is expected to increase further. Although wine is becoming more popular in many parts of Germany, the national alcoholic drink is beer. German beer consumption per person is declining, but at 121.4 litres in 2009 it is still among the highest in the world. The Michelin guide has awarded nine restaurants in Germany three stars, the highest designation, while 15 more received two stars. German restaurants have become the world's second-most decorated after France.
- Main article: Sport in Germany
Twenty-seven million Germans are members of a sports club and an additional twelve million pursue sports individually. Association football is the most popular sport. With more than 6.3 million official members, the German Football Association (Deutscher Fußball-Bund) is the largest sports organisation of its kind worldwide. The Bundesliga, the top league of German football, is the most popular sports league in Germany and attracts the second highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world.
The German national football team won the FIFA World Cup in 1954, 1974 and 1990 and the UEFA European Football Championship in 1972, 1980 and 1996. Germany hosted the FIFA World Cup in 1974 and 2006 and the UEFA European Football Championship in 1988. Among the most well-known footballers are Franz Beckenbauer, Gerd Müller, Jürgen Klinsmann, Lothar Matthäus, and Oliver Kahn. Other popular spectator sports include handball, volleyball, basketball, ice hockey, and tennis.
Germany is one of the leading motor sports countries in the world. Constructors like BMW and Mercedes are prominent manufacturers in motor sport. Additionally, Porsche has won the 24 Hours of Le Mans, an annual endurance race held in France, 16 times, and Audi has won it 11 times. Formula One driver Michael Schumacher has set many motor sport records during his career, having won more Formula One World Drivers' Championships and more Formula One races than any other driver; he is one of the highest paid sportsmen in history.
Historically, German sportsmen have been successful contenders in the Olympic Games, ranking third in an all-time Olympic Games medal count, combining East and West German medals. In the 2008 Summer Olympics, Germany finished fifth in the medal count, while in the 2006 Winter Olympics they finished first. Germany has hosted the Summer Olympic Games twice, in Berlin in 1936 and in Munich in 1972. The Winter Olympic Games took place in Germany once in 1936 in the twin towns of Garmisch and Partenkirchen.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Bevölkerung und Erwerbstätigkeit: Bevölkerung mit Migrationshintergrund – Ergebnisse des Mikrozensus 2010, p. 64 statistics
- ↑ Germans without any migrant background
- ↑ "Press releases - For the first time more than 16 million people with migration background in Germany". Federal Statistical Office (Destatis) - Destatis.de. 2010-07-14. https://www.destatis.de/EN/PressServices/Press/pr/2010/07/PE10_248_122.html. Retrieved 2012-11-04.
- ↑ "Pressemitteilungen - Ein Fünftel der Bevölkerung in Deutschland hatte 2010 einen Migrationshintergrund" (in (German)). Statistisches Bundesamt (Destatis) - Destatis.de. 2011-09-26. https://www.destatis.de/DE/PresseService/Presse/Pressemitteilungen/2011/09/PD11_355_122.html. Retrieved 2012-11-04.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 Key Figures on Europe. Belgium: European Union. 2011. p. 37. doi:10.2785/623. ISBN 978-92-79-18441-3. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-EI-11-001/EN/KS-EI-11-001-EN.PDF.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 "Germany". International Monetary Fund. October 2012. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2012/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=59&pr.y=9&sy=2012&ey=2012&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=134&s=NGDP_R%2CNGDP%2CNGDPD%2CNGDPRPC%2CNGDPPC%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC&grp=0&a=. Retrieved 9-October-2012.
- ↑ "Human development index". United Nations Development Programme. 2011. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2011_EN_Table1.pdf. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
- ↑ Mangold, Max, ed. (1995) (in German). Duden, Aussprachewörterbuch (6th ed.). Dudenverlag. pp. 271, 53f. ISBN 978-3-411-20916-3.
- ↑ The Latin name Sacrum Imperium (Holy Empire) is documented as far back as 1157. The Latin name Sacrum Romanum Imperium (Holy Roman Empire) was first documented in 1254. The full name "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" (Heiliges Römisches Reich Deutscher Nation) dates back to the 15th century.
Zippelius, Reinhold (2006)  (in German). Kleine deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte: vom frühen Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart [Brief German Constitutional History: from the Early Middle Ages to the Present] (7th ed.). Munich: Beck. p. 25. ISBN 978-3-406-47638-9.
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 "Germany". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. http://berkleycenter.georgetown.edu/resources/countries/germany. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
- ↑ Schulze, Hagen (1998). Germany: A New History. Harvard University Press. p. 4. ISBN 0-674-80688-3.
- ↑ Lloyd, Albert L.; Lühr, Rosemarie; Springer, Otto (1998) (in German). Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Althochdeutschen, Band II. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 699–704. ISBN 3-525-20768-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=iKfYGNwwNVIC&pg=PA523. (for diutisc) Lloyd, Albert L.; Lühr, Rosemarie; Springer, Otto (1998) (in German). Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Althochdeutschen, Band II. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 685–686. ISBN 3-525-20768-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=iKfYGNwwNVIC&pg=PA516. (for diot)
- ↑ Claster, Jill N. (1982). Medieval Experience: 300–1400. New York University Press. p. 35. ISBN 0-8147-1381-5.
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 Fulbrook 1991, pp. 9–13.
- ↑ Bowman, Alan K.; Garnsey, Peter; Cameron, Averil (2005). The crisis of empire, A.D. 193–337. The Cambridge Ancient History. 12. Cambridge University Press. p. 442. ISBN 0-521-30199-8.
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 Fulbrook 1991, p. 11.
- ↑ Fulbrook 1991, pp. 13–24.
- ↑ Nelson, Lynn Harry. The Great Famine (1315–1317) and the Black Death (1346–1351). University of Kansas. http://www.vlib.us/medieval/lectures/black_death.html. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- ↑ Fulbrook 1991, p. 27.
- ↑ Philpott, Daniel (January 2000). "The Religious Roots of Modern International Relations". World Politics 52 (2): 206–245.
- ↑ Macfarlane, Alan (1997). The savage wars of peace: England, Japan and the Malthusian trap. Blackwell. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-631-18117-0.
- ↑ Gagliardo, G., Reich and Nation, The Holy Roman Empire as Idea and Reality, 1763–1806, Indiana University Press, 1980, p. 12-13.
- ↑ Fulbrook 1991, p. 97.
- ↑ Henderson, W. O. (January 1934). "The Zollverein". History 19 (73): 1–19. doi:10.1111/j.1468-229X.1934.tb01791.x.
- ↑ 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 25.5 25.6 25.7 25.8 "Germany". U.S. Department of State. 10 November 2010. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3997.htm. Retrieved 26 March 2011.
- ↑ Black, John, ed. (2005). 100 maps. Sterling Publishing. p. 202. ISBN 978-1-4027-2885-3.
- ↑ Fulbrook 1991, pp. 135, 149.
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Field listing – GDP (official exchange rate)
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- ↑ "Pressemitteilungen - Statistisches Bundesamt (Destatis) - Ein Fünftel der Bevölkerung in Deutschland hatte 2010 einen Migrationshintergrund- Statistisches Bundesamt (Destatis)" (in (German)). Destatis.de. 26 September 2011. https://www.destatis.de/DE/PresseService/Presse/Pressemitteilungen/2011/09/PD11_355_122.html. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
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- ↑ 149.0 149.1 "EKD-Statistik: Christen in Deutschland 2007" (in German). Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland. http://www.ekd.de/statistik/mitglieder.html. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- ↑ 150.0 150.1 "Konfessionen in Deutschland" (in German). Fowid. 9 September 2009. http://fowid.de/fileadmin/datenarchiv/Religionszugehoerigkeit_Bevoelkerung__1950-2008.pdf. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- ↑ 151.0 151.1 "Chapter 2: Wie viele Muslime leben in Deutschland?" (in German) (PDF). Muslimisches Leben in Deutschland. Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge. June 2009. pp. 80, 97. ISBN 978-3-9812115-1-1. http://www.bmi.bund.de/cae/servlet/contentblob/566008/publicationFile/31710/vollversion_studie_muslim_leben_deutschland_.pdf;jsessionid=6B8CD26E2AC179111AF4F75650B84B1A. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- ↑ "Religionen in Deutschland: Mitgliederzahlen" (in German). Religionswissenschaftlicher Medien- und Informationsdienst. 31 October 2009. http://www.remid.de/remid_info_zahlen.htm. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- ↑ Blake, Mariah (10 November 2006). "In Nazi cradle, Germany marks Jewish renaissance". Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/2006/1110/p25s02-woeu.html. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- ↑ Schnabel, U. (15 March 2007). "Buddhismus Eine Religion ohne Gott" (in German). Die Zeit (Hamburg). http://www.zeit.de/2007/12/Buddhismus. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- ↑ 155.0 155.1 European Commission (2006). "Special Eurobarometer 243: Europeans and their Languages (Survey)". Europa (web portal). http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_243_en.pdf. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
European Commission (2006). "Special Eurobarometer 243: Europeans and their Languages (Executive Summary)". Europa (web portal). http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_243_sum_en.pdf. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- ↑ European Commission (2004). "Many tongues, one family. Languages in the European Union". Europa (web portal). http://ec.europa.eu/publications/booklets/move/45/en.pdf. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- ↑ "Sprechen Sie Deutsch?". The Economist. 18 March 2010. http://www.economist.com/node/15731354. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
- ↑ Grotlüschen, Anke; Riekmann, Wibke (2011). "leo.- Level One Survey. Presseheft" (in German). University of Hamburg. http://www.vhs-sachsen.de/uploads/media/Executive_Summary_leo_v8_Journalismusfassung.pdf. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
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- ↑ "The Educational System in Germany". Cuesta College. 31 August 2002. http://academic.cuesta.edu/intlang/german/education.html. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
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- ↑ Health Care Systems in Transition: Germany. European Observatory on Health Care Systems. 2000. p. 8. AMS 5012667 (DEU). http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/80776/E68952.pdf. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- ↑ "Die Gesundheitsreform 2007: Was hat sich geändert?". Krankenkassen.de. http://www.krankenkassen.de/gesetzliche-krankenkassen/gesundheitsreform/Gesundheitsreform-zentrale-Punkte-Fragen/. Retrieved 16 April 2012.
- ↑ 165.0 165.1 "Core Health Indicators". World Health Organization. http://apps.who.int/whosis/database/core/core_select.cfm. Retrieved 6 June 2011.
- ↑ "2010: Herz-/Kreislauferkrankungen verursachen 41 % aller Todesfälle" (in German). Destatis.de. https://www.destatis.de/DE/ZahlenFakten/GesellschaftStaat/Gesundheit/Todesursachen/Aktuell.html;jsessionid=B6BD78C7EDB6FE6693DE58EA7B23D148.cae1. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
- ↑ 167.0 167.1 "Country Profile Germany" (PDF). Library of Congress Federal Research Division. April 2008. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/Germany.pdf. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
This article may incorporate text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- ↑ Wasser, Jeremy (6 April 2006). "Spätzle Westerns". Spiegel Online International. http://www.spiegel.de/international/0,1518,410135,00.html. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- ↑ "Unbelievable Multitude". Deutsche Welle. http://www.dw-world.de/dw/0,,8009,00.html. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- ↑ "World Heritage Sites in Germany". UNESCO. http://www.worldheritagesite.org/countries/germany.html. Retrieved 3 October 2010.
- ↑ "Human Development Report 2010 Table 4 Gender Inequality Index". United Nations Development Programme. pp. 156–160. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2010_EN_Tables_reprint.pdf. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- ↑ "Germany extends gay rights". News24. 29 October 2004. http://www.news24.com/World/News/Germany-extends-gay-rights-20041029. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- ↑ Heckmann, Friedrich (2003). The Integration of Immigrants in European Societies: national differences and trends of convergence. Lucius & Lucius. pp. 51 ff. ISBN 978-3-8282-0181-1.
- ↑ "2010 Anholt-GfK Roper Nation Brands Index" (Press release). GfK. 12 October 2010. http://www.gfk.com/group/press_information/press_releases/006688/index.en.html. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- ↑ "Views of US Continue to Improve in 2011 BBC Country Rating Poll". Worldpublicopinion.org. 7 March 2011. http://www.worldpublicopinion.org/pipa/articles/views_on_countriesregions_bt/680.php?nid=&id=&pnt=680&lb=#ger. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- ↑ A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. Oxford University Press. 2006. p. 880. ISBN 0-19-860678-8.
- ↑ (13 April 2011). "Bundesverband Musikindustrie: Deutschland drittgrößter Musikmarkt weltweit". Musikindustrie.de. http://www.musikindustrie.de/politik_einzelansicht0/back/110/news/jahrespressekonferenz-des-bvmi/. Retrieved 28 February 2012.
- ↑ Espmark, Kjell (3 December 1999). "The Nobel Prize in Literature". Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/articles/espmark/index.html. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- ↑ "Land of ideas". Land-der-ideen.matrix.de. http://land-der-ideen.matrix.de/CDA/facts_printing,4563,0,,en.html. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- ↑ Weidhaas, Peter; Gossage, Carolyn; Wright, Wendy A. (2007). A History of the Frankfurt Book Fair. Dundurn Press Ltd.. pp. 11 ff. ISBN 978-1-55002-744-0.
- ↑ Searle, John (1987). "Introduction". The Blackwell Companion to Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell.
- ↑ Bordwell, David; Thompson, Kristin (2003) . "The Introduction of Sound". Film History: An Introduction (2nd ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 204. ISBN 978-0-07-115141-2.
- ↑ "Rainer Werner Fassbinder". Fassbinder Foundation. http://www.fassbinderfoundation.de/node.php/en/home. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- ↑ "2006 FIAPF accredited Festivals Directory". International Federation of Film Producers Associations. http://www.fiapf.org/pdf/2006accreditedFestivalsDirectory.pdf. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- ↑ "Awards:Das Leben der Anderen". IMDb. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0405094/awards. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- ↑ "Country profile: Germany". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/1047864.stm. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- ↑ "Guide to German Hams and Sausages". German Foods North America. http://www.germanfoods.org/consumer/facts/guidetoham.cfm. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
- ↑ "Germany Country Profiles for Organic Agriculture". Food and Agriculture Organization. http://www.fao.org/organicag/display/work/display_2.asp?country=DEU&lang=en&disp=summaries. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
- ↑ Schneibel, Gerhard (23 April 2010). "Brewers not worried by beer consumption drop". Deutsche Welle (Bonn). http://www.dw.de/dw/article/0,,5489225,00.html. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
- ↑ "Schnitzel Outcooks Spaghetti in Michelin Guide". Deutsche Welle (Bonn). 15 November 2007. http://www.dw.de/dw/article/0,,2914502_page_0,00.html. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
- ↑ "German cuisine beats Italy, Spain in gourmet stars". Reuters. 28 March 2011. http://in.reuters.com/article/2007/11/14/us-germany-food-idINL1447732320071114. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- ↑ 192.0 192.1 192.2 "Germany Info: Culture & Life: Sports". Germany Embassy in Washington, D.C. http://www.germany.info/relaunch/culture/life/sports.html. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- ↑ Ornstein, David (23 October 2006). "What we will miss about Michael Schumacher". The Guardian (UK). http://www.guardian.co.uk/sport/2006/oct/23/formulaone.sport. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- ↑ "Beijing 2008 Medal Table". International Olympic Committee. http://www.olympic.org/medallists-results?athletename=&category=343488&games=1333952&sport=&event=&mengender=false&womengender=false&mixedgender=false&teamclassification=false&individualclassification=false&continent=&country=&goldmedal=true&silvermedal=true&bronzemedal=true&worldrecord=false&olympicrecord=false&targetresults=true. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- ↑ "Turin 2006 Medal Table". International Olympic Committee. http://www.olympic.org/medallists-results?athletename=&category=343486&games=1334152&sport=&event=&mengender=false&womengender=false&mixedgender=false&teamclassification=false&individualclassification=false&continent=&country=&goldmedal=true&silvermedal=true&bronzemedal=true&worldrecord=false&olympicrecord=false&targetresults=true&sortorder=medal&sortorder=country. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- Work cited
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