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Fluminense
200px
Full name Fluminense Football Club
Nickname(s) Tricolor Carioca[1]
Fluzão[2]
Nense[3]
Pó-de-Arroz[4]
Founded July 21, 1902[1]
Stadium Estádio Olímpico João Havelange, Rio de Janeiro
(capacity: 46,931)
President Peter Siemsen
Head coach Abel Braga
League Campeonato Brasileiro Série A
2012 1st

Fluminense Football Club (Portuguese pronunciation: [flumiˈnẽsi]) is a sports club based in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Founded in the beginning of the 20th century as a single-sport institution,[1] Fluminense is today an umbrella organization for several teams in more than 16 different sport activities.[5] The most popular endeavor of Fluminense, however, continues to be football.[6] This article concerns itself with Fluminense solely as a professional football club.

The Tricolor was the first successful organization in the state of Rio de Janeiro established specifically for football, and has been the inspiration for several other clubs in Brazil and in other countries. For that reasons, Fluminense is the most traditional club of Brazil. It adopted the colors of maroon, green and white.

In the 1920s the club was considered an "entity of federal public utility" by Decree nº 5044 with date of October 28, 1926, published by the Diário Oficial da União (Brazilian government's official gazette) on November 10, 1926, after having won their first international competition (the Vulcain Cup) in 1928.

Fluminense Football Club has contributed the fifth most players to the Brazil national team. The Rio de Janeiro government decreed November 12 "Fluminense Football Club Day" by law (nº 5094) on September 27, 2007. With the largest number of Campeonato Carioca titles in the 20th century (28), the club is known as the "champion of the century".[7]

HistoryEdit

File:Oscar Cox.jpg

Fluminense Football Club was founded on July 21, 1902 in Rio de Janeiro by Oscar Cox, a Brazilian of English heritage.[1] in the then aristocratic neighbourhood of Laranjeiras.[8] Fluminense was formed by sons of the elite who had come into contact with football while studying in Europe.[9] The first official match was played against now defunct Rio FC, and ended 8-0 for Fluminense.[1] The club's first title came in 1906, when Fluminense won its first Campeonato Carioca.[1]

File:EstadioLaranjeiras.jpg

In 1911, disagreement between Fluminense players led to the formation of Flamengo's football team.[1] The so-called Fla-Flu derby is considered one of the biggest in the history of Brazilian football.[10] Three years later, in Fluminense's stadium, the Brazilian national football team debuted, against English touring side Exeter City FC [1] It was also there that they won their first title, in the 1919.[11] One year later, Afrânio Costa, a Fluminense shooting athlete, won the first medal for Brazil in the history of the Olympic Games.[12][13]

By 1924, Fluminense had 4,000 members, a stadium for 25,000 people, and facilities that impressed clubs in Europe.[14] Nonetheless, Fluminense's long association with the rich tainted its history with racism.[15] In an unfortunate event in 1914, Carlos Alberto, a mulatto playing for Fluminense decided to cover himself in cosmetic powder to disguise the color of his skin. This ultimately led to one of the club's nicknames, pó de arroz, which is the Portuguese for 'white powder'.[15][16] After 1925, Fluminense began pressuring for the professionalization of football,[6] but it wasn't until the 1950s that the club started to accept black players in its squad,[15] however, in 1945 hired a black coach, Gentil Cardoso, who was champion in Rio in 1946, a position that most clubs in the world took a lot to offer to a black man.

The following years saw an expansion of the club's hegemony in Rio. Fluminense would remain unsurpassed in terms of state championships until 2009.[17] International acclaim came in 1949 with the awarding of the Olympic Cup, and was further fostered in 1952 with Fluminense's first intercontinental honor, the Copa Rio.[1][18] The club established itself regionally with victory in two Torneio Rio-São Paulo cups in 1957 and 1960.[1] National honors followed in 1970, 1984, 2010 and 2012 with Taça de Prata and Série A cups, respectively.,[1] also taking the Cup in Brazil in 2007.

As late as the 1960s, Brazil did not have a unified national championship, Fluminense has focused on the achievements at the state of Rio de Janeiro, winning until the year 1950, 15 State Championships.

In 1952, the Fluminense won his first international title, winning the Copa Rio Internacional. In this tournament Fluminense faced teams like Peñarol (Uruguay), Sporting (Portugal), Grasshopper-Club (Switzerland) and Austria Wien (Austria), all of then great strengths of football on 1950s years. The Fans sees Fluminense Rio Cup title in 1952 as a world club title.

From the 1950s, with the creation of the Rio-São Paulo Tournament, the forerunner of what eventually would become the national championship, Fluminense established itself regionally, with the tournament title in the years of 1957 and 1960.

From the 1960s, began to be played in Brazil the first national championships. The Fluminense first national title came in 1970, in that time, Brazil had the best players in world football, and all of them played in Brazilians clubs. Although not counted in his squad with the main players of the season in Brazil, Fluminense won the Brazilian champion surpassing the great strengths of the time as Santos, Palmeiras and Cruzeiro.

In the 1970s, Fluminense signing up with several famous players like Roberto Rivellino. This time, called as "maquina tricolor", won the state championship in the years of 1975 e 1976. In the national championship Fluminense lost in the semifinal maths to Internacional in 1975 and Corinthians in 1976.

Fluminense has became again the Brazilian champion in 1984. This time, that had won the state Championship in the years of 1983, 1984 and 1985, count with players like Romerito, Ricardo Gomes, Deley, and the "Casal Vinte": Assis and Washington.

At the end of the 1980s, Copa do Brasil was created, inspired by the Cups tournament played in European countries. Fluminense reached the final of the Copa do Brasil for the first time in 1992, having lost the final math to Internacional de Porto Alegre.

File:Fluminense Headquarters.jpg

A disastrous campaign led to the club's relegation from Série A in 1996. A set of off-field political maneuvers, however, allowed Fluminense to remain in Brazil's top domestic league,[19] only to be relegated the next year.[20] Completely out of control, the club was relegated from Série B to Série C in 1998.[21] In 1999, Fluminense won the Série C championship and was to be promoted to Série B when it was invited to take part in Copa João Havelange,[22] a championship that replaced the traditional Série A in 2000. In 2001, it was decided that all clubs which took part in Copa João Havelange's so-called Blue Group should be kept in Série A,[23] and so Fluminense Football Club found its way back to the top, where it has been ever since.

In 2002, 2005 and 2012, Fluminense won again the Campeonato Carioca. In 2005 Fluminense reached the final of the Copa do Brasil again, having lost the final Match to Paulista Futebol Clube.

In 2007, Fluminense won the Copa do Brasil, after beaten Figueirense in the final Match, and was admitted in the Copa Libertadores again after 23 years.[1][24] The club's campaign led it into the finals and included remarkable matches against Arsenal de Sarandí, São Paulo and Boca Juniors.[25][26][27] Fluminense lost the cup to LDU Quito in a penalty shootout.[28]

File:Fujaj.jpg

After signing up 27 players and going through 5 different managers in 2009, Fluminense found itself struggling to avoid another relegation from Série A.[29] With less than one-third of the championship left, the mathematical probability of the club's relegation was of 98%.[30] At this point, manager Cuca decided to sack some of the more experienced players and gave Fluminense's youngsters a chance.[31] That, along with Fred's recovery from a serious injury and substantial support from the fans, allowed not only a sensational escape from relegation, but also placed Fluminense in the final of the Copa Sudamericana.[32][33] For the second year in a row, the club contested a continental cup. In a repeat of the previous year's Copa Libertadores, Fluminense lost the cup to LDU Quito.[34]

In 2010, Fluminense won the Brazilian championship for the third time in its history, marking their third national championship after 1970 and 1984). It was also the fourth title for coach Muricy Ramalho in a decade: Ramalho had won the title three times in a row with São Paulo from 2006 to 2008. Darío Conca was named the Brazilian Championship's Player of Season, while Fred and Washington were decisive players in Fluminense's winning campaign.

On May 23, 2012, Fluminense lost the semifinal qualification match to Boca Juniors from Argentina, for the continental club football cup, Copa Libertadores.[35] Later that year, on November 11, they won their fourth Brazilian championship after defeating the near-relegated Palmeiras 3-2.[36]

Fluminense won the Série A for the fourth time on November 11, 2012.[37]

PerformanceEdit

Fluminense Football Club took part in 36 of the 38 official Serie A championships organized in Brazil since 1971.[38] Since the number of participating teams has changed considerably over time, any accurate performance measurement must take this variable into account. In the two tables below, the performance field for a given position p in a universe of n teams was calculated using the formula:

x = \frac{n-p}{n} \times 100

This allows for an asymptotic limit of 100%, since p will never be zero.

YearPositionParticipantsPerformanceYearPositionParticipantsPerformance
1971162020%1981114475%
1972142646%198254489%
1973234042%1983184459%
1974244040%198414198%
197534293%1985224450%
197645493%198664887%
1977266258%198771656%
1978227470%198832487%
1979529445%1989152232%
1980114475%1990152025%
YearPositionParticipantsPerformanceYearPositionParticipantsPerformance
199142080%200132889%
1992142030%200242685%
1993283212%2003192421%
1994152437%200492462%
199542483%200552277%
199623244%2006152025%
199725264%200742080%
1998Série B2008142030%
1999Série C2009162020%
200032588%201012095%
2011320

Fluminense Football Club has an average performance of 57% in Série A, with a standard deviation of 28%.

SponsorsEdit

Companies that Fluminense Football Club currently has sponsorship deals with include:

  • 22x20px Adidas - The company supplies football team kits, as well as Olympic sports equipment.

RecordsEdit

File:Fluminense-torcida.jpg

LARGEST PUBLIC - MARACANÃ[40]Edit

  • 1. Fluminense 0-0 Flamengo, 1963 194,603 ¹
  • 2. Fluminense 3-2 Flamengo, 1969 171,599
  • 3. Fluminense 1-0 Botafogo, 1971 160,000
  • 4. Fluminense 0-0 Flamengo, 1976 155,116
  • 5. Fluminense 1-0 Flamengo, 1984 153,520
  • 6. Fluminense 1-1 Corinthians, 1976 146,043

¹: paying 177,656, a record of persons present at Maracanã stadium.

Higher means of public competition for FluminenseEdit

  • Largest average attendance in the Copa Libertadores (RJ): 52,801 (49,011 pags., 2008)
  • Largest average attendance in the Copa Sudamericana (RJ): 29,357 (27,318 pags., 2009)
  • Largest average attendance in international tournaments (RJ): 48,797 (37,541 pags., Copa Rio, 1952)
  • Largest average attendance in national championships (RJ): 43,541 pags. (1976)
  • Largest average attendance in the Tournament Roberto Gomes Pedrosa (RJ): 40,408 pags. (1970)
  • Largest average attendance in the Brazil Cup (RJ): 27,123 pags. (2007)
  • Largest average attendance in the Rio-São Paulo Tournament (RJ): 33,018 pags. (1960)
  • Largest average attendance in the state championship: 47,814 pags. (1969, all stages)
  • Largest average attendance in the state championship in the Maracana Stadium: 93,560 pags. (1969, 10 Matches)

SupportEdit

The supporters of Fluminense Football Club are usually related to the upper classes of Rio de Janeiro.[41] However, the popularity of the club reaches beyond the city limits. Recent polls have estimated the number of supporters to be between 1.3% and 3.7% of the Brazilian population.[42] Considering a population of 185 million people,[43] that would account for numbers between 2.73 and 6.84 million.

The best attendance ever observed in a match of Fluminense was registered on December 15, 1963 in a rally against Flamengo. On that day, an impressive amount of 194,000 people showed up at the Maracanã stadium.[44] This occasion remains as the stadium's record for a match between clubs.[45]

Notable supporters of Fluminense include composers Cartola and Chico Buarque,[46][47] FIFA president of honor João Havelange,[10] musician Ivan Lins,[48] poet and actor Mário Lago,[49] journalist and songwriter Nelson Motta[50] and dramatist, journalist and writer Nelson Rodrigues.,[50] 1970 FIFA World Cup winner Gérson, Paris Saint Germain's top defense player Thiago Silva, former Minister of Culture and international artist Gilberto Gil,[51] Silvio Santos, the owner of SBT, the second largest Brazilian television network,[52] and the Academy Award nomenee Fernanda Montenegro.[53]

Fluminense DerbiesEdit

  • Fla-Flu, also called Classic of Crowds,[54] played with Flamengo;
  • Giants' Classic, played with Vasco;
  • Grandpa Derby, played with Botafogo;
  • Fluminense vs. America, played with America;
  • Vs Fluminense. Bangu, the Bangu Atlético Clube.

According to the file fluzao.info site, the average public paying the principal classics of Fluminense played in the Maracana Stadium is 60,107 against Flamengo, Vasco against the 43,735 of 34,359 against Botafogo of 25,127 against America and of 22,527 against Bangu, medium plus the public that these gifts could be about 20% higher, given the issues of the distribution of gratuities in the Maracana Stadium.[55]

Corinthians vs Fluminense, the great classic interstate Fluminense

Considering the interstate clashes, the derby against Sport Club Corinthians Paulista is perhaps the most representative among the various confrontations with big Brazilian clubs played for Fluminense, given the fact that these clubs often intersect at decisive moments in their stories, either by the end Rio Cup, the direct contest in several Tournaments Rio-São Paulo since 1940, or by the qualifying rounds of the Championship or Cup of Brazil,[56][57] in the great struggle of the Brazilian Football Championship 2010 when the two clubs played the title since the beginning of the championship with Corinthians having lost the Championship to Cruzeiro in the final round, as did the reverse in 2011, when the Corinthians was the champion and the Tricolor, a champion of the symbolic second round of the Brazilian, the third, with nine matches in the history of this classic provides more than 55,000 fans at Maracana stadium or the Morumbi, with an average attendance of 30,266 at the Maracana paying until August 2009.[55]

FootballEdit

Current squadEdit

As of July 2011.[58][59][60][61][62][63]

Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
1 22x20px GK Ricardo Berna
2 22x20px DF Bruno Vieira
3 22x20px DF Gum
4 22x20px DF Leandro Euzébio
5 22x20px MF Edinho
6 22x20px DF Carlinhos
7 22x20px MF Thiago Neves
8 22x20px MF Diguinho
9 22x20px FW Fred (captain)
12 22x20px GK Diego Cavalieri
13 22x20px DF Digão
14 22x20px DF Elivelton
15 22x20px DF Anderson
16 22x20px DF Wallace
17 22x20px MF Edwin Valencia
No. Position Player
18 22x20px MF Wellington Nem
19 22x20px MF Wágner
20 22x20px MF Deco (vice-captain)
21 22x20px FW Marcos Júnior
22 22x20px DF Thiago Carleto
23 22x20px FW Rafael Sóbis
25 22x20px MF Jean
30 22x20px MF Higor
31 22x20px FW Samuel
32 22x20px MF Fábio Braga
33 22x20px GK Klever
34 22x20px DF Wellington Carvalho
35 22x20px FW Matheus Carvalho
37 22x20px MF Rafinha

Players with Dual Nationality

Entries Edit

Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
2 22x20px MF Bruno (from Figueirense)
19 22x20px MF Wágner (from Gaziantepspor)
28 22x20px MF Jean (from São Paulo)
No. Position Player
TBA 22x20px DF Anderson (from Atlético-GO)
TBA 22x20px DF Thiago Carleto (from América-MG)
TBA 22x20px MF Thiago Neves (from Flamengo)

Out or on loan Edit

Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
- 22x20px DF Bruno (to Ceará)
- 22x20px DF Diogo (to Sport)
- 22x20px DF André Luis (No Club)
- 22x20px DF João Paulo (to Náutico)
- 22x20px DF Jefferson (to Náutico)
- 22x20px DF Marquinhos (to Náutico)
- 22x20px DF Gerson (to Macaé)
- 22x20px MF Fernando Bob (for the loan Vitória)
No. Position Player
- 22x20px MF Raphael Augusto (for the loan D.C. United)
- 22x20px MF Marquinho (for the loan Roma)
- 22x20px MF Tartá (for the loan Vitória)
- 22x20px MF Lucas Patinho (to Sporting Clube de Portugal B)
- 22x20px FW Ciro (for the loan Bahia)
- 22x20px FW Rodriguinho (for the loan Portuguesa)
- 22x20px FW Rosicley (for the loan Ponte Preta)
- 22x20px FW Alejandro Martinuccio (for the loan Cruzeiro)

Fluminense Youth TeamEdit

U-20 teamEdit

As of June 26, 2012.

Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
22x20px GK Silezio
22x20px DF Igor Julião
22x20px DF Wellington Carvalho
22x20px DF Marquinhos
22x20px DF Fernando
22x20px DF Ronan
22x20px MF Ewerton
No. Position Player
22x20px MF Rafinha
22x20px MF Higor
22x20px MF Eduardo
22x20px MF Luiz Fernando
22x20px FW Caio
22x20px FW Michael
22x20px FW Rafael Assis

First-team staffEdit

As of May 19, 2011.
Position Name Nationality
Head coach Abel Braga 22x20px Brazilian
Assistant Coach Leomir 22x20px Brazilian
Fitness coaches Flávio Vignoli 22x20px Brazilian
Jefferson Souza 22x20px Brazilian
Goalkeeping Coach Victor Hugo 22x20px Brazilian

Football OfficialsEdit

As of September 2009, Fluminense Football Club was undergoing serious political turmoil, with no clearly defined chain of command.[64][65][66][67]

HonorsEdit

HonorEdit

  • 25pxCarioca Champion of the Twentieth century*:
  • For have been the Rio club with the most state titles in the last century.

DomesticEdit

File:CopaRioETri.jpg
Champions (4): 1970, 1984, 2010, 2012
Champions (1): 2007
Runners-up (2): 1992, 2005
Champions (1): 1999
  • The south of Taça Brasil
Champions (1): 1960
Champions (2): 1957, 1960
Runners-up (1): 1954
  • Taça Ioduran
Champions (1): 1919
Champions (31): 1906, 1907, 1908, 1909, 1911, 1917, 1918, 1919, 1924, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1940, 1941, 1946, 1951, 1959, 1964, 1969, 1971, 1973, 1975, 1976, 1980, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1995, 2002, 2005, 2012
Runners-up (20): 1910, 1915, 1920, 1925, 1933, 1935, 1943, 1949, 1953, 1956, 1957, 1960, 1963, 1970, 1972, 1979, 1991, 1993, 2003, 2011
File:Trofeu Copa do Brasil 2007.jpg
Champions (9): 1966, 1969, 1971, 1975, 1983, 1985, 1991, 1993, 2012
Runners-up (10): 1970, 1972, 1974, 1978, 1979, 1984, 1987, 1994, 2001, 2004
Champions (2): 1990, 2005
Runners-up (7): 1984, 1986, 1988, 1998, 2003, 2004, 2008
Champions (1): 1998
  • Torneio Municipal
Champions (2): 1938, 1948
  • Torneio Aberto
Champions (1): 1935
  • Torneio Extra do Rio de Janeiro (Taça Oscar Cox)
Champions (1): 1941
  • Primeiro Turno do Campeonato Carioca
Champions (1): 1970
Champions (1): 1972
Champions (1): 1973
Champions (1): 1976
Champions (1): 1980
  • Torneios Início do Rio de Janeiro
Champions (10): 1916, 1924, 1925, 1927, 1940, 1941, 1943, 1954, 1956, 1965 (Record)

InternationalEdit

Champions (1):1949
  • In 1949, Fluminense Football Club was awarded the Olympic Cup by the International Olympic Committee.[18] The official 2009 kit featured the Olympic Cup as a 60th year celebration.[69] Fluminense is the only football club and Brazilian Organization that earned this title.
Champions (1): 1952[18]

South AmericanEdit

Runner-up (1): 2008
Runner-up (1): 2009

Friendly tournamentsEdit

File:TaçaTeresaHerrera1977.jpg
Champions (1):1987
  • Seoul Olympic Tournament
Champions (1):1984[70]
Champions (1):1977[71]
  • Copa Ciudad Viña del Mar
Champions (1):1976
  • Torneio Internacional de Verão do Rio de Janeiro
Champions (1):1973
Champions (2):1976, 1987
  • Kiev Tournament; 1
Champions (1):1989

Minor achievementsEdit

Other honorsEdit

Trophies of the Fluminense Football Club, see RSSSF.[73]

Notable former playersEdit

The most notable players for Fluminense Football Club so far have been:[74]

Head coachesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 "Fluminense - Forever Flu". Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA). http://www.fifa.com/classicfootball/clubs/club=241/index.html. Retrieved 2009-06-07.
  2. "Thiago flies the Fluzão flag". Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA). http://www.fifa.com/tournaments/archive/clubworldcup/japan2008/news/newsid=716238.html. Retrieved 2008-03-19.
  3. "Brazil National Soccer League - List of Teams in Serie A". about.com Brazil Travel Guide. http://gobrazil.about.com/od/culturehistorylanguage/a/brasileirao.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-07.
  4. "Action of a FARE partner at the Maracanã in Rio de Janeiro". Football Against Racism in Europe (FARE). http://www.farenet.org/default.asp?intPageID=7&intArticleID=1576. Retrieved 2008-05-28.
  5. "FLUOLIMPICO.COM.BR" (in Portuguese). Fluminense Football Club. http://www.fluminense.com.br/fluolimpico/. Retrieved 2009-06-09.
  6. 6.0 6.1 "FLUMEMÓRIA - HISTÓRIA - Um clube popular" (in Portuguese). Fluminense Football Club. http://www.fluminense.com.br/memoria_historia.asp. Retrieved 2009-12-04.[dead link]
  7. honor in 2005 RSSSF
  8. "Fluminense fiesta". British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). 2002-08-22. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/tv_and_radio/world_football/2188923.stm. Retrieved 2009-06-11.
  9. "How football conquered Brazil". 2009-05-18. http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/timvickery/2009/05/how_football_conquered_brazil.html. Retrieved 2009-06-11.
  10. 10.0 10.1 "Passion, carnival and crazy goals". Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA). 2001-07-13. http://www.fifa.com/aboutfifa/federation/news/newsid=78517.html. Retrieved 2009-06-10.
  11. "Southamerican Championship 1919". Rec. Sport. Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). http://www.rsssf.com/tables/19safull.html. Retrieved 2009-06-11.
  12. Napoleão, Antônio Carlos (2003) (in Portuguese). Fluminense Football Club: História, Conquistas e Glórias no Futebol. Mauad. p. 30. ISBN 978-85-7478-078-8. http://books.google.com/books?id=N38fcax08dcC. Retrieved 2009-06-15.
  13. "Histórico do Brasil nas competições olímpicas de tiro" (in Portuguese). UOL Esporte. http://esporte.uol.com.br/olimpiadas/modalidades/tiro/historico_brasil.jhtm. Retrieved 2009-06-15.
  14. Mason, Tony (1995). Passion of the people? Football in South America. Verso. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-86091-403-7. http://books.google.com/books?id=iIN81fOaLdkC. Retrieved 2009-06-10.
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 Rodrigues, Mário (2003) (in Portuguese). O negro no futebol brasileiro. Mauad. pp. 36,37,41,44,51,60,62,63,69,70,77,210,281. ISBN 978-85-7478-096-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=4n3n63FoJQsC. Retrieved 2009-06-13.
  16. "Pó-de-arroz: provocação que virou símbolo" (in Portuguese). globoesporte.com. 2008-03-05. http://globoesporte.globo.com/ESP/Noticia/Futebol/Fluminense/0,,MUL338483-4284,00.html. Retrieved 2009-06-13.
  17. "Fla consolida supremacia com seis títulos na década" (in Portuguese). Jornal O Dia. 2009-05-04. http://odia.terra.com.br/portal/ataque/campeaocarioca2009/html/2009/5/fla_consolida_supremacia_com_seis_titulos_na_decada_9969.html. Retrieved 2009-06-11.
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 "Fluminense Football Club - Conquistas" (in Portuguese). Fluminense Football Club. http://www.fluminense.com.br/memoria_historiaconquistas.asp. Retrieved 2009-12-04.[dead link]
  19. "Santos and sinners". When Saturday Comes (WSC). 2003-02. http://www.wsc.co.uk/content/view/2584/29/. Retrieved 2009-06-12.
  20. "Brazil 1997 Championship". Rec. Sport. Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). http://www.rsssfbrasil.com/tablesae/br1997.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-04.
  21. "Brazil 1998 Championship - Second Level (Série B)". Rec. Sport. Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). http://www.rsssfbrasil.com/tablesae/br1998l2.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-04.
  22. "Brazil 1999 Third Level (Série C)". Rec. Sport. Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). http://www.rsssfbrasil.com/tablesae/br1999l3.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-04.
  23. "Brazil 2001 Championship". Rec. Sport. Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). http://www.rsssfbrasil.com/tablesae/br2001.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-04.
  24. "Fluminense volta à Libertadores após 23 anos" (in Portuguese). UOL Esporte. 2007-06-06. http://esporte.uol.com.br/futebol/ultimas/2007/06/06/ult59u122616.jhtm. Retrieved 2009-06-12.
  25. "Flu massacra Arsenal em noite de gala" (in Portuguese). globoesporte.com. 2008-03-05. http://globoesporte.globo.com/ESP/Noticia/Futebol/Fluminense/0,,MUL338513-4284,00.html. Retrieved 2009-06-12.
  26. "Flu leva a melhor no Maraca e está na semifinal da Taça Libertadores" (in Portuguese). globoesporte.com. 2008-05-21. http://globoesporte.globo.com/Esportes/Noticias/Futebol/Libertadores/0,,MUL489835-9851,00-FLU+LEVA+A+MELHOR+NO+MARACA+E+ESTA+NA+SEMIFINAL+DA+TACA+LIBERTADORES.html. Retrieved 2009-06-12.
  27. Leach, Conrad (2008-06-06). "Flu flay Boca as Brazilians fly into final". London: The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/football/2008/jun/06/1. Retrieved 2009-06-12.
  28. Duarte, Fernando (2008-07-04). "Fluminense in mourning after Maracana party turns to tears". London: The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/football/2008/jul/04/brazil. Retrieved 2009-06-12.
  29. "Balcão de negócios e alta rotatividade ajudam a explicar desespero do Flu" (in Portuguese). globoesporte.com. 2009-10-05. http://globoesporte.globo.com/Esportes/Noticias/Times/Fluminense/0,,MUL1329995-9866,00-BALCAO+DE+NEGOCIOS+E+ALTA+ROTATIVIDADE+AJUDAM+A+EXPLICAR+DESESPERO+DO+FLU.html. Retrieved 2009-12-14.
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  33. "A média de público final do Campeonato Brasileiro 2009" (in Portuguese). Rio de Janeiro: O Globo. 2009-12-08. http://oglobo.globo.com/blogs/bolademeia/posts/2009/12/10/a-media-de-publico-final-do-campeonato-brasileiro-2009-248850.asp. Retrieved 2009-12-14.
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  36. Danilo Lavieri, Danilo; Rodrigues, Renan (November 11, 2012). "Fluminense vence com gols de Fred, vira tetra brasileiro e deixa Palmeiras a um jogo da queda" (in Portuguese). UOL Esportes (Presidente Prudente). http://esporte.uol.com.br/futebol/campeonatos/brasileiro/serie-a/pos-jogo/2012/11/11/palmeiras-x-fluminense.htm. Retrieved November 11, 2012.
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  54. Livro “Fla-Flu… E as Multidões Despertaram”, de Nélson Rodrigues e Mário Filho (Edição Europa, 1987).
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  73. RSSSF
  74. "FLUMEMÓRIA - HISTÓRIA - Ídolos" (in Portuguese). Fluminense Football Club. http://www.fluminense.com.br/memoria_historiaidolos.asp. Retrieved 2009-12-04.[dead link]

External linksEdit


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